Corneal Disorders

Corneal Disorders Replacement Surgery In Chandigarh – Corneal disorder replacement is the best option in order to cure the problems of the cornea. If you are the one who is suffering from any of the corneal disorder and searching for the best hospital for corneal disorder replacement surgery in Chandigarh then no need to search further. Connect with Sharma Eye Care Hospital which is one of the leading eye hospitals in Chandigarh.

Corneal Disorders Replacement Surgery In Chandigarh

The problem of the corneal disorder includes corneal ulcers, keratoconus, keratomalacia, Cogan syndrome, bullous keratopathy, interstitial keratitis, and many more. If you are suffering from any of these problems then your ophthalmologist suggests you corneal disorder replacement surgery. The experienced surgeons of Sharma Eye Care Hospital recover the vision of eyes with the latest technological surgeries. For further details feel free to contact us at 9814528495 or you can drop us a mail at

Dry Eye

Our eye requires tears to stay comfortable and healthy. If your eyes do not make tears then it is called a dry eye. Another definition of dry eye is that when your eyes do not make the right type of tears. The continuous making and drainage of tears are very important for the health of eyes. This is so because tears keep the eye moist, protects against infection, and help to heal the wounds. The tear film present in our eye smoothes the surface of the cornea and gives it polished appearance and also helps in clear visuals. Dry eye problem is very common nowadays. Especially this problem is found in women after menopause.


The lacrimal gland which is present in the upper outer part of the eye socket is mostly responsible for the making of tears. Tears will leave our eyes after the drainage or evaporation. The drainage system of tears runs from the inner corner of both eyelids and drains by the nose. Dry eye mostly occurs in humans as there age increases. This is so because as our age increases the production of the lacrimal gland will reduce. Dry eye problem also occurs due to the eyelid problems such as blepharitis (a condition when tear quality is poor). This problem also occurs when there us dry air in the climate as well as with the use of some medicines/drugs like nasal decongestants, tranquillizers, anti-depressant drugs, and antihistamines. It also appears in the people who have connective tissue diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. Sometimes dry eye is a symptom of Sjögren's syndrome which is a disease that directly attacks the lubricating glands of the body.

Signs & Symptoms

Most of the patients who suffer from dry eye problem complain about chronic discomfort. Chronic discomfort is a problem which shows signs like gritty sensation and burning. Some patients feel the sandy or scratchy feeling. Other symptoms of the dry eye include stingy discharge, stinging, blurred vision, heaviness or even watery. Sometimes the eyes become red and start losing its shiny appearance. You might also see stringy mucus strands and filaments. Some patients experience that the lower eyelid is reduced.

Detection And Diagnosis

Adding a dye to the eye: fluorescein (orange) or rose bengal (red) may identify dry/damaged areas on the cornea. A Schirmer's test (the amount of moistening of a strip of blotting paper placed in contact with the inside of the lower eyelid) can measure the amount of tear production.


The best treatment is frequent lubricating drops or artificial tears. These are generally available in the form of drops. You can even use sterile ointments at night, but they make the vision blurry or misty in the morning. Every patient prefers different eye drops and takes them at different frequencies from once daily to up to in every 15 minutes. The eye drops are cheaper than the charge of the prescription. But the thing is that you can only purchase them if you have a prescription. Some precautions you have to follow, these precautions are always used humidifiers or wear glasses when going outside. Along with that, the other precaution you have to take is that always avoid outside dry and windy conditions. Temporary or permanent closure of the tear drain may be helpful in those people who are suffering from the severe cases of dry eye. Some people use swimming goggles to protect eyes from the evaporation.

The patients who have severe eye problem need occlusion of puncta with punctual plugs. Recent drug cyclosporine (0.05%) drops have been found to be beneficial in improving tear formation. Autologous serum drops are especially helpful in the healing of micro epithelial defects. Patients undergoing treatment should be taken up for cataract surgery under proper counseling.

Corneal Ulcer

A corneal ulcer is a problem which forms when the surface of the cornea is compromised or damaged. These ulcers may be infectious or sterile (no infecting organisms). Infiltrate is a term which is commonly used with the ulcers. Infiltrate is a term which refers to an immune response which causes an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the areas of the body where they not belong.

For a physician, it is a very important process to check whether the ulcer is infectious or not. This is so because only after that a physician can recommend the course of treatment. Bacterial ulcers are very painful and are mostly associated with the break in the epithelium (superficial layer of the cornea). In some patients, the inflammatory response involves the most anterior chamber along with the cornea of the eye. Pseudomonas is a type of bacteria which cause severe damage to the eye and even cause blindness within 24-48 hours if left untreated.

Sterile infiltrates not cause that much pain as bacterial ulcers cause. It causes only a little pain. This type of ulcers is mostly found near the peripheral edge of the cornea of the eye. It is not accompanied by a break in the epithelial layer of the cornea of the eye.

Corneal ulcers are of many types. Most of the people get a corneal epithelial injury during working in the field and then gets a corneal ulcer in the eye. These patients have got an injury with a vegetative foreign body and the ulcer formed is a fungal corneal ulcer. The people who wear contact lenses (especially soft) have a high risk of ulcers if they do not use proper regimens for the handling, cleaning, and disinfection of their lenses. Soft contact lenses have very high water content and then easily absorbs infecting and bacteria organisms. Pseudomonas is the common reason for corneal ulcer which is mostly found in those who wears contact lenses.

Bacterial ulcers mostly associated with the diseases which compromise the corneal surface and creates a lot of opportunities for the organisms to infect the cornea. Corneal ulcers are caused by fungus and need early diagnosis.

In most of the patients who have severe dry eye problem have difficulty in breathing are also at risk. Other main causes of corneal ulcers include inflammatory diseases, herpes simplex viral infections, corneal injuries or abrasions, and other systematic diseases.

Signs & Symptoms

The symptoms of corneal ulcers depend on their type whether they are sterile or infectious. The symptoms of corneal ulcers are:

  • Discharge
  • Red Eye
  • Severe pain
  • Tearing
  • Light sensitivity
  • White spot on the cornea, that depending on the severity of the ulcer, may not be visible with the naked eye

Detection And Diagnosis

Slit lamp microscope is used for the careful examination of corneal ulcers. Special types of eye drops containing dye such as fluorescein may be instilled to highlight the ulcer, making it easier to detect.

If an infectious organism is suspected in the examination then doctors perform corneal scraping and order a culture. Then they numb the eye with the topical eye drop and then gently scraped the cells from the corneal surface. After this, they tested to determine the infecting organism.


The treatment of corneal ulcers depends on the type of it whether it is infectious or sterile. For bacterial ulcers, aggressive treatment is required. In some patients, antibacterial eye drops are used after 15 minutes. In the case of infectious ulcers, steroid medications are avoided. Some patients who have severe corneal ulcers may require hospitalization for around-the-clock therapy or IV antibiotics. For the treatment of the sterile ulcers, eye’s inflammatory response is reduced with steroid drops, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drops. Sterile ulcers which have impending or infective corneal perforations are treated by Tectonic Penetrating Keratoplasty.



Keratoconus is a degenerative disease which causes gradually thin and keratoconus bulge into a cone-like shape. This shape protects the light from focusing on the macula. As the disease increases, this cone becomes more pronounced and the vision becomes distorted and blurred. The patients of keratoconus mostly have a nearsighted and high degree of astigmatism because of the irregular shape of the cornea.

Sometimes keratoconus is an inherited problem which usually occurs in both the eyes. This problem may occur in association with Vernal Catarrh (allergy), Down's Syndrome.

Signs & Symptoms
  • Nearsightedness
  • Astigmatism
  • Blurred vision (even with glasses and contact lenses)
  • Glare at night
  • Light sensitivity
  • Frequent prescription changes in contact lenses and glasses
  • Eye rubbing
  • Keratoconus
Detection And Diagnosis

Keratoconus s usually diagnosed when the patients reach at the age of 20. Until the later stages of these diseases, you cant see keratoconus with the naked eyes. In severe cases of this disease, the shape of the cone is visible to an observer when the patient looks down or the upper lid is lifted. When a patient looks down then the lower lid is no longer form a shape of an arc, but its bows outward around the pointed cornea. It is called Munson’s sign.

Topography is special corneal testing which provides the details of the shape of the cornea to the doctor. These details then used to monitor and detect the progression of the disease. To measure the thickness of the cornea a pachymeter is used.

In first-line treatment for keratoconus patients a rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses are fitted. This is so because this type of contact lenses are not flexible and creates a smooth, evenly shaped surface to see. These contact lenses are very difficult to fit due to the irregular shape of the cornea. This process requires patience and time. If the disease is progress then the collagen cross-linking with Tropical Riboflavin sensitization is performed. It is a new treatment to cure keratoconus and may stabilize it in 70-80% cases.

In the case when vision becomes deteriorates and the contact lenses no longer give clear vision then at that time a corneal transplant is necessary to replace the infected cornea with the healthy one.

Contact Details

Name - Dr. Ashok Sharma's Cornea Centre
Address - Sco 2463-2464, Second Floor, Sector 22 C, Chandigarh - 160022, India
Phone Number - 9814528495

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